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Medcine Mnemonics For Internal Medicine And Beyond



These Medicine mnemonics would help you in Internal Medicine rotations. 


The best part is a huge chunk of the all medical professional exams are from Internal medicine. 


It is safe to say then, that these mnemonics would help you your entire life as a Medical student and Doctor.


Pancytopaenia differential

"All Of My Blood Has Taken Some Poison":

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Aplastic anaemias

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Overwhelming sepsis

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Megaloblastic anaemias

Bone marrow infiltration

Hypersplenism

TB

SLE

Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria

 

Haematology: key numbers

3 and 4 are key in in haematology:

1.34 cm3 of oxygen is carried by a gram of hemoglobin.

There's 3.4mg of iron in each gram of hemoglobin.

There's an average of 3.4 lobes per neutrophil.

There's 34mg bilirubin from each gram of hemoglobin.

 

Back trouble causes

O, VERSALIUS (Versalius was the name of a famous physician):

Osteomyelitis

Vertebral fracture

Extraspinal tumour

Spondylolisthesis

Ankylosing spondylitis

Lumbar disk increase

Intraspinal tumor

Unhappiness

Stress

 

Sports injuries: course of action RICE:

Rest

Ice

Compression

Elevation

· RICE especially for fractures, sprains, muscle strains, contusions

· Alternatively: I=Immobilization, C=Cold compresses.

 

Back pain causes DISK MASS (since near vertebral disc):

Degeneration (DJD, osteoporosis, spondylosis)

Infection (UTI, PID, Pott's disease, osteomyelitis, prostatitis)/ Injury, fracture or compression fracture

Spondylitis (ankylosing spondyloarthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis, Reiters, SLE)

Kidney (stones, infarction, infection)

Multiple myeloma/ Metastasis (from cancers of breast, kidney, lung, prostate, thyroid)

Abdominal pain (referred to the back)/ Aneurysm

Skin (herpes zoster)/ Strain/ Scoliosis and lordosis Slipped disk/ Spondylolisthesis

 

Bronchiectasis: differential BRONCHIECTASIS:

Bronchial cyst

Repeated gastric acid aspiration

Or due to foreign bodies

Necrotizing pneumonia

Chemical corrosive substances

Hypogammaglobulinemia

Immotile cilia syndrome

Eosinophilia (pulmonary)

Cystic fibrosis

Tuberculosis (primary)

Atopic bronchial asthma

Streptococcal pneumonia

In Young's syndrome

Staphylococcal pneumonia

 

Sickle cell disease complications SICKLE:

Strokes/ Swelling of hands and feet/ Spleen problems

Infections/ Infarctions

Crises (painful, sequestration, aplastic)/ Cholelithiasis/ Chest syndrome/ Chronic hemolysis/ Cardiac problems

Kidney disease

Liver disease/ Lung problems

Erection (priapism)/ Eye problems (retinopathy)

 

ADP: role in platelet aggregation

ADP = Aggregation from the Dense bodies of Platelets.

 

Gynecomastia: common causes GYNECOMASTIA:

Genetic Gender disorder (Klinefelter)

Young boy (pubertal)*

Neonate*

Estrogen

Cirrhosis/ Cimetidine/ Ca Channel blockers 

Old age*

Marijuana

Alcoholism

Spironolactone

Tumors (Testicular & adrenal)

Isoniazid/ Inhibition of testosterone

Antineoplastics (Alkylating Agents)/ Antifungal(ketoconazole)

· * Asterisk indicates physiologic cause.

 

Lethargy, malaise causes FATIGUED:

Fat/ Food (poor diet)

Anemia

Tumor

Infection (HIV, endocarditis)

General joint or liver disease

Uremia

Endocrine (Addison's, myxedema)

Diabetes/ Depression/ Drugs

 

Polycythemia Rubra Vera (PRV): common symptoms

PRV:

Plethora/ Pruritis

Ringing in ears

Visual blurriness

 

Rashes: time of appearance after fever onset

"Really Sick Children Must Take No Exercise":

· Number of days after fever onset that a rash will appear:

1 Day: Rubella

2 Days: Scarlet fever/ Smallpox

3 Days: Chickenpox

4 Days: Measles (and see the Koplik spots one day prior to rash)

5 Days: Typhus & rickettsia (this is variable)

6 Days: Nothing

7 Days: Enteric fever (salmonella)

 

Anion gap metabolic acidosis: causes

A MUDPILE CAT:

Alcohol

Methanol

Uremia

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Paraldehyde

Iron/ Isoniazid

Lactic acidosis

Ethylene glycol

Carbamazepine

Aspirin

Toluene

 

Bronchiectasis: causes

A SICK AIRWAY:

Airway lesion, chronic obstruction

Sequestration

Infection, inflamation

Cystic fibrosis

Kartagners syndrome

Allergic brochopulmonary aspergilliosis

Immunodeficiencies (hypogammaglobinaemia, myeloma, lymphoma)

Reflux, inhalation injury

William Campbell syndrome (and other congenitals)

Aspiration

Yellow nail syndrome/ Young syndrome

 

Alkalosis: metabolic changes in alkalosis

"Al-K-loss, Al-Ca-loss": There is loss of K+ (hypokalemia) and Ca++ (hypocalcemia) in state of alkalosis.

 

HbA2: concentration in normal blood

HbA2: Concentration of HbA2 is 2% in normal adult blood.

 

Ducket John's: major criteria

ACNES:

Arthritis 

Carditis

Nodule (subcutaneous)

Erythrema marginatum 

Sydenham chorea

 

ICU management: A to Z

A: Asepsis/ Airway

B: Bed sore/ encourage Breathing/ Blood pressure

C: Circulation/ encourage Coughing/ Consciousness

D: Drains

E: ECG

F: Fluid status

G: GI losses/ Gag reflex

H: Head positioning/ Height

I: Insensible losses

J: Jugular venous pulse

K: Kindness

L: Limb care/ Label

M: Mouth care

N: Nociception/ Nutrition

O: Oxygenation/ Orient the patient

P: Pulse/ Peristalsis/ Physiotherapy

Q: Quiet surroundings

R: Respiratory rate/ Restraint

S: Stress ulcer/ Suctioning

T: Temperature

U: Urine

V: Ventilator

W: Wounds/ Weight

X: Xerosis

Y: whY

Z: Zestful care of the patient

 

Hypercalcemia causes

MD PIMPS ME:

Malignancy

Diuretics (thiazide the main culprit)

Parathyroid (hyperparathyroidism)

Immobilization/ Idiopathic

Megadoses of vitamins A,D

Paget's disease

Sarcoidosis

Milk alkali syndrome

Endocrine (Addison's disease, thyrotoxicosis)

 

Left iliac fossa: causes of pain

SUPER CLOT:

Sigmoid diverticulitis

Uteric colic

PID

Ectopic pregnancy

Rectus sheath haematoma

Colorectal carcinoma

Left sided lower love pneumonia

Ovarian cyst (rupture, torture)

Threatened abortion/ Testicular torsion

 

Respiratory disease: hand signs CASH:

Clubbing

Asterixis

Small muscle wasting

HPOA

 

Clubbing: respiratory causes

ABCDEF:

Abcess (lung)

Bronchiectasis (including CF)

Cancer (lung)

Decreased oxygen (hypoxia)

Empyaema

Fibrosing alveolitis

 

Pulmonary edema: treatments MAD DOG:

Morphine

Aminophylline

Digitalis

Diuretics

Oxygen

GGases in blood (ABG's)

 

Hypercalcemia: causes GRIM FED:

Granulomas (sarcoid, TB),

Renal faliure

Immobility (esp. long term)

Malignancy

Familial (eg familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia)

Endocrine (see below for subtypes)

Drugs (esp. thiazide diuretics, lithium)

· Endocrine causes are PATH:

Phaeochromocytoma

Addison's disease

Thyrotoxicosis

Hyperparathyroidism

 

Acute stridor: differentialABCDE’FGH:

· With fever: Abscess Bacterial tracheitis Croup Diphtheria Epiglottitis

· Without fever: Foreign body Gas (Toxic Gas) Hypersensitivity

 

Hypercalcemia: differential VITAMIN TRAPS:

Vitamin A and D intoxication

Immobilization

Thyrotoxicosis

Addison's disease/ Acidosis

Milk-alkali syndrome

Inflammatory disorders

Neoplastic disease

Thiazides, other drugs

Rhabdomyolysis

AIDS

Paget's disease/ Parenteral nutrition/ Parathyroid disease

 

Metabolic acidosis: causes USED CAR:

Ureteroenterostomy

Saline hydration

Endocrinopathies (hyperparathyroid, hyperthyroid, Addison's)

Diarrhea/ DKA/ Drugs

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

Ammonium chloride

Renal tubular acidosis

· Alternatively: USED CARP, to include

Parenteral nutrition/ Pancreatic fistula.

 

Pulmonary edema: treatment LMNOP:

Lasix

Morphine

Nitrates (NTG)

Oxygen

Position (upright vs. flat)

 

Eosinophilia: differential NAACP:

Neoplasm

Allergy/ Asthma Addison's disease

Collagen vascular diseases

Parasites

 

SIADH: diagnostic sign

Syndrome of INAPPropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone:

Increased 

Na (sodium)

PP (urine)

· SIADH is characterized by increased urinary sodium.

 

Thyroid storm: initial management PCP'S:

PTU - 1 gm po

Corticosteroids

Propranolol 

SSKI 

 

Renal failure (acute): management

Manage AEIOU:

Anemia/ Acidosis

Electrolyte and fluids

Infections

Other measures (eg nutrition, nausea, vomiting

Uremia

 

Non-gap acidosis: causes HARD UP:

Hyperalimentation

Acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitors)

RTA

Diarrhea

Ureterosigmoidostomy

Pancreatic fistula

 

Hemoptysis: causes HEMOPTYSIS:

Haemorrhagic diathesis

Edema [LVF due to mitral stenosis]

Malignancy

Others [eg: vasculitis]

Pulmonary vascular abnormalities

Trauma

Your treatment [anticoagulants]

SLE

Infarction in lungs

Septic

 

Abdominal pain: medical causes "ABDOMENAL PANE" [abdominal pain]:

Acute rheumatic fever

Blood [purpura, a/c hemolytic crisis]

DKA

cOllagen vascular disease

Migraine [abdominal migraine]

Epilepsy [abdominal epilepsy]

Nephron [uremia]

Abdominal angina

Lead

Porphyria

Arsenic

NSAID's

Enteric fever

 

Haemobilia: features MOB:

Melaena Obstructive jaundice Biliary colic

 

Thickened nerves: causes

HANDS:

Hansen's (leprosy)

Amyloidosis

Neurofibromatosis

Diabetes mellitus

Sarcoidosis

 

SIADH: major signs and symptoms

SIADH:

Spasms

Isn't any pitting edema (key DDx)

Anorexia

Disorientation (and other psychoses)

Hyponatremia

 

Toxicity/ sepsis: signs 6 T's:

Tachycardia

Tachypnea

Tremors

Toxic look

Tiredness

Temperature (fever)

 

Macrocytic anemia: causes ABCDEF:

Alcohol + liver disease

B12 deficiency

Compensatory reticulocytosis (blood loss and hemolysis)

Drug (cytotoxic and AZT)/ Dysplasia (marrow problems)

Endocrine (hypothyroidism)

Folate deficieny/ Fetus (pregnancy)

 

Behcet's syndrome: diagnostic criteria

PROSE:

Pathergy test (i/d saline injection)

Recurrent genital ulceration

Oral ulceration (recurrent)

Skin lesions

Eye lesions

· Oral ulceration is central criteria, plus any 2 others.

 

Metabolic acidosis: causes KUSSMAL:

Ketoacidosis

Uraemia

Sepsis

Salicylates

Methanol

Alcohol

Lactic acidosis

 

Allopurinol: indications STORE:

Stones (history of renal stones)

Tophaceous gout (chronic)

Over-producers of urate

Renal disease

Elderly

 Bonus: Probenecid indications are basically the opposite of STORE (no renal stone history, etc.).

 

Raynaud's disease: causes BAD CT:

Blood disorders (eg polycythaemia)

Arterial (eg atherosclerosis, Buerger's)

Drugs (eg beta-blockers)

Connective tissue disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, SLE)

Traumatic (eg vibration injury)

 

Lead poisoning (chronic): features ABCDEFGHI:

Anaemia/ Anorexia/ Arthralgia/ Abortion/ Atrophy of optic nerve

Basophilic stippling of RBC (punctate basophilia)/ Burtonian line on gums

Colic/ Constipation/ Coprophyrin excess in urine/ Cerebraloedema

Drop (wrist, foot)

Encephalopathy/ Emaciation

Foul smell of breath/ Failure of kidneys/ Fanconi syndrome

Gonadal dysfunction/ Gout-like picture

High BP/ Headache/ Hallucination/ Hyperaesthesia

Impotence/ Insomnia/ Irritability

 

Splenomegaly: causes CHICAGO:

Cancer Hem, onc Infection Congestion (portal hypertension) Autoimmune (RA, SLE) Glycogen storage disorders Other (amyloidosis)

 

SIADH: causes SIADH:

Surgery

Intracranial: infection, head injury, CVA

Alveolar: Ca, pus

Drugs: opiates,antiepileptics, cytotoxics, anti-psychotics

Hormonal: hypothyroid, low corticosteroid level 

 

Ileus: causes MD SPUGERS:

Mesenteric ischemia

Drugs (see below)

Surgical (post-op)

Peritonitis/ Pancreatitis (sentinnel loop)

Unresolved mechanical obstruction (eg mass, intussusception, blockage)

Gram negative sepsis

Electrolyte imbalance (eg hypokalemia)

Retroperitoneal bleed or hematoma

Spinal or pelvic fracture

· Drugs are Aluminum hydroxide, Ba++, Ca carbonate, opiates, TCA, verapamil.


Ulcers: types VAN:

Venous/ Vasculitic

Arterial

Neuropathic


Pulmonary fibrosis: causes SCAR:

· Upper lobe:

Silicosis/ Sarcoidosis

Coal worker pneumonconiosis

Ankylosing spondylitis

Radiation

· Lower lobe:

Systemic sclerosis

Cyptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

Asbetosis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Dialysis indications HAVE PEE:

Hyperkalemia (refractory)

Acidosis (refractory)

Volume overload

Elevated BUN (> 36 mM)

Pericarditis

Encephalopathy

Edema (pulmonary)


SLE: factors that make SLE active UV PRISM:

UV (sunshine)

Pregnancy

Reduced drug (eg steroid)

Infection

Stress

More drug


Pruritus without rash: Ddx

ITCHING DX:

Infections (scabies, toxocariasis, etc)

Thyroidal and other endocrinopathies (eg diabetes mellitus)

Cancer

Hematologic diseases (eg iron deficiency)/ Hepatopathies/ HIV

Idiopathic

Neurotic

Gravid (pruritus of pregancy)

Drugs

eXcretory dysfunctions (eg uremia)


Horner's syndrome: components SAMPLE:

Sympathetic chain injury

Anhidrosis

Miosis

Ptosis

Loss of ciliospinal reflex

Enophthalmos


Caplan syndrome: characteristics CAPlan:

Coal worker pneumoconiosis

Arthritis

Pulmonary nodule


Anemia: non-megaloblastic causes of macrocytic anemia

HAND LAMP:

Hypothyroidism

Aplastic anaemia

Neonates

Drugs

Liver disease

Alcohol

Myelodyplasia

Pregnancy


Acromegaly symptoms

ABCDEF:

Arthralgia/ Arthritis

Blood pressure raised

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Diabetes

Enlargemed organs

Field defect


NSAIDs: contraindications NSAID:

Nursing and pregnancy

Serious bleeding

Allergy/ Asthma/ Angioedema

Impaired renal function

Drug (anticoagulant)


ACEI: contraindictions PARK:

Pregnancy

Allergy

Renal artery stenosis

K increase (hyperkalemia)


Pressure Sore: Norton Score MAGIC:

Mobility

ADL

General condition

Incontinence

Conscious level

 


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 2 likes
 
 






Bkay (Basic)   5 months ago
This is well researched and insightful


Bennyedwin99 (Basic)   5 months ago
Are you a doctor


Gloriaoghale (Basic)   5 months ago
Hmmm




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